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Majalah Ilmiah UNIKOM

Vol.7, No. 2

200

H a l a m a n

In broader terms, LCA is an instrument for

evaluating environmental attributes asso-

ciated with product, process, and service.

The evaluation will be implemented over

impacts that will occur along the cradle–to

–grave or from birth until death or from a–

to–z of product–life–cycle specifically from

raw materials extraction until waste dis-

posal management.

S

ince the first present in 1960 until early

1990, LCA was not extensively applied, but

since then has been developed some

methodologies, which is broadly accepted

and the application of LCA progress in-

creasingly and got some acknowledge-

ments from international standards such

as ISO 14040–14043. In 1993, ISO

formed Technical Committee (TC) 207 to

establish ISO 14000 as environmental

management standards that consists of

six (6) environmental issues:

1

The first three (3) issues concerning about

valuation on organization:

Environmental Management System

(EMS) is certification process for ISO

14001.

Environmental Auditing (EA) is certifi-

cation process for ISO 14010–12.

Environmental Performance Evalua-

tion (EPE) is certification process for

ISO 14031.

The second three (3) issues concerning

about valuation standards on products:

Environmental Labeling (EL) is certifi-

cation process for ISO 14020–24.

Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is certification

process for ISO 14040–43.

Environmental Aspects in Product

Standards (EAPS).

As an evaluation instrument, LCA has

some prime features that have been ap-

plied since 1970. Besides used as an

evaluation tool on conceptual process and

quantitative evaluation, it can be used to

create a consistent process in global scale

throughout its three basic components:

1. Inventory of Effects

2. Impact Analysis

3. Improvement Analysis

In the very near future, manufacturer

should include estimation on production

processes of service, goods, and waste

management under their responsibilities,

and not consider them in a second place

or second thought. Hence, it is needed to

pay much more attention to product–life–

cycle that means not only concern about

the product creation and materials usage

but also concern about what will happen

at the end of product life. Currently, the

engineers have included design for disas-

sembly, design for recycling, and design

for environment into their responsibilities,

which is counting environmental aspects

into their design vocabulary.

CRADLE–TO–GRAVE PARADIGM

PRODUCT–LIFE–CYCLE

“50% of energy consumption of built envi-

ronment represented relationship with

construction industry

2

”, construction in-

dustry including architecture in regard with

building is a part of secondary industry,

which always relate with energy producing.

The above statement forwarded by mem-

bers of AIA (American Institute of Archi-

tects) and IUA (International Union of Ar-

chitects) when proposed addendum on

Agenda 21

3

, proceedings of The 1992 Rio

Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which

Wanita Subadra Abioso

—————————————————

1

SOCMÆs ISO 14000 Overview

—————————————————-

2

Steele, James (1997), Sustainable Architecture,

Principles, Paradigms, and Case Studies, McGraw

–Hill, New York, page 16.

3

Ibid. page 8